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During physicochemical treatment, the concentrations of FeCl 3. The differences between the times of appearance of inflexions and minimum concentration of contaminants are related to the sampling frequencies.
Nitrogen and cod removal from tannery wastewater using biological and physicochemical treatments
In some cases, experimental determination could not be done at the same time when the inflexion profile was measured on-line, due to the tedious and time consuming experimental analysis 7. After 35 days of operation of the combined treatment, the system efficiency was improved slightly to Cycles evaluated in the SBR showed the efficiency of the biological system for nitrification, but showed its inefficiency to perform the ammonification of the organic nitrogen present in tannery wastewater.
Microbiological analysis The results of on-line and physicochemical measurements were supplemented by basic microbiological analysis, which determined the bacterial density of nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms present in the mixed liquor Figure 7. This concentration decreased during the second anoxic phase until Adjuvant was obtained from a company dedicated to produce salt by sun evaporation Maracaibo, Venezuela.
The duration of a complete SBR operation cycle was 12 h.
However, a recovery of the biological process was observed from day 41 of the treatment; although it was not until day 49 of the SBR operation when the nitrogen removal efficiencies were stable again The biomass was acclimated to the wastewater characteristic and SBR conditions for a period of 40 days. The principle diagram of the biological system with all major components is shown in Figure 1.
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The brine is an agro-industrial waste generated in obtaining salt by solar evaporation. During the entire monitoring of SBR performance, the breaking point in the pH profile was observed by the pH increase due to the higher alkalinity production oficixl denitrification process 6but in other cases, the inflexion in the pH was obtained by the decrease in the profile due to the nitrification process, after that an increase of pH profile was observed due to the completion of nitrification Finally, the effectiveness of ORP, pH and DO profiles as control parameters for monitoring the evolution of biological nutrient removal during the SBR cycle was investigated.
Gaceta Oficial Digital, jueves 14 de septiembre de Predenitrification was the most efficient strategy for simultaneous removal of nitrogen and organic matter from tannery wastewater 2 At this point, ammonium concentration gcaeta constant and any further inflexion was observed in the profiles for the rest of the aerobic phase, indicating that nitrification process was completed 9.
This efficiency was slightly lower than total biodegradable COD of the raw wastewater In addition, densities of nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms in the mixed liquor were evaluated during the biological treatment. Monitoring the biological nutrient removal from wastewaters has been considered difficult due to the lack of available control parameters.
Finally, the effectiveness of ORP, pH and DO profiles as control parameters for monitoring the evolution of biological nutrient removal during the SBR cycle was investigated.
After 35 days of operation of the combined treatment, the system efficiency was improved slightly to Anoxic condition was achieved during the first phase in the SBR cycle with average DO concentration of 0.
Tannery wastewater has some contaminants, like sulfurs, that could suffer oxidation and produce additional inflexions in the ORP profile. During the entire monitoring of SBR performance, the breaking point in the pH profile was observed by the pH increase due to the higher alkalinity production during denitrification process 6but in other cases, the inflexion in the pH was obtained by the decrease in the profile due to the nitrification process, after that an increase of pH profile was observed due to the completion of nitrification Gaceta Oficial Digital, martes 16 de enero de In recent years, sequencing batch reactors SBR have shown good removal efficiencies for nitrogen and organic carbon contained in industrial wastewater with inhibiting substances 4.
In this regard, Boursier et al. The duration of the different phases were controlled by time switches Table 2. Furthermore, some researchers aimed to evaluate the effects of coagulants obtained from natural sources and agro-industrial byproducts such as Ryu et gacfta.
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Profiles of ORP, DO and pH were efficient ways to monitor the evolution of biological nutrient removal and real-time control can be implemented in order to optimize the SBR operation. The integrated system for the treatment of tannery wastewater operated continuously for 90 days.
Results of the tertiary treatment showed the efficiency of the coagulation-flocculation process during COD removal Figure 3. It is reported that the ORP value is correlated with the logarithm of the DO concentration in a linear relationship This efficiency was slightly lower than total biodegradable COD of the raw wastewater The system reached pseudo-stable condition approximately at day 20 of the beginning of the experiment.