Range Description. Callicebus nigrifrons is distributed over a relatively wide area in south-eastern Brazil. Its range includes much of So Paulo, southern Minas. Black-fronted titi monkeys, Callicebus nigrifrons, are endemic primates of the Atlantic forest of Brazil, and little is known about their diet and how. Am J Primatol. Aug;76(8) doi: /ajp Epub Mar 3. Vocal behavior of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons): acoustic.
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The collection of ancillary data during the census allowed the determination of diet and habitat use by the titis groups, and results show a relative adaptability to disturbed habitats.
Atlantic forest; black-fronted titi monkey; conservation; density. This range coincides with the most densely populated part of Brazil, which has a long history of colonization and deforestation DEAN Present-day populations of C.
Given this situation, C. This study presents the results of a survey of the C. The park is divided into four administrative nuclei Fig. Transects were conducted along 12 trails, four trails located in each one of the nuclei. Transects length varied from 0. During surveys, special attention was paid to the collection of complementary data on the diet and use of habitat habitat type and vertical spacing by C.
The dominant habitat observed along each m interval of the transects was assigned to one of these categories, providing an estimate of the relative cover of each forest type. Survey data on the diet of C. Specimens were obtained from plants exploited by the titis for identification by a specialist.
During the 13 month period, we walked a The number of sessions in each trail varied from 15 to 25, so that the total sample effort in each trail was approximately the same for that nucleus.
On the other sightings, we encountered the following primate species in order of encounters: Callicebus nigrifrons was the second most abundant species, presenting an abundance index of 1. Table II presents this global abundance index as well as the same index for each nucleus. The average size of troops found in this study was 2. Sample size was not large enough for reliable calculations of the Effective Strip Width ESW and the density parameter in each nucleus separately. Thus the sighting data were pooled and analyzed for the area as a whole.
The perpendicular sighting distances were tested for normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov: To obtain a reliable statistical analysis, the frequency of each available habitat, as well as the titi’s sightings obtained on each nucleus were grouped and analyzed, statistically, in a global way. Since the trails used during the census where of different length and were walked distinctively, the total habitat availability was calculated in function of the effort employed on each trail Tab.
The Exotic Forest and the Initial Secondary Forest habitats didn’t obtain any titi records and the Late Secondary Forest habitat obtained an inferior number than expected, while the Araucaria Forest and the “Primary” Forest obtained more records than it was expected.
The height data on witch the titis were sighted were also pooled and analyzed as a whole, in order to make the analyses more robust.
Also, with the same objective, and only for this analyses, the data obtained in opportunistic encounters ad libitum during the study where also considered, raising the number of records from 39 to 60 Fig. We observed the titis consume 15 species belonging to nine families.
Fruit pulp was the principal item consumed for most the species Tab. We also observed some individuals ingesting arthropods on three occasions, indicating this food item may complete the titis diet. The density and relative abundance estimates of the present study conform to similar studies carried out with species of the Callicebus genus in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Tab.
Abundance indexes expressed little difference between nuclei, except for the smaller Pedra Grande, were the total primate abundance was greater. This difference was probably related to the very high abundance of howler monkeys Alouatta clamitansin contrast with the reduction of abundance indexes for Calllithrix aurita, Cebus nigritus and the titis.
File:Callicebus nigrifrons sauá.jpg
The Pedra Grande nucleus had the greatest secondary forest availability, and the tourist pressure is often more intense, compared with the other nuclei. Despite this difference, the titis were the second most abundant primate species in all nuclei in CSP, and presented an overall density estimate larger than most of the studies presented in table VIalthough they had a slightly lower troop size 2.
Some of this variation can be explained by sample differences and systematic errors that may arrise whith violations of cxllicebus basic assumptions of line transect census theory, but can we hypothesize this as adaptations to perturbation? However, HEIDUCK showed that despite utilizing both secondary and primary forests, the home ranges of troops always contained a major portion of primary forest, and that habitat use was much more related to food resource availability than the proportional availability of each habitat.
In the CSP, C. With regard to the callicegus stratification observed, the titis exhibited a considerable preference for the lower canopy 10 to 14 meters class. This corroborates with the overall pattern relating the height of strata used to body size and locomotion mode for primates CUNHA et al.
Observations of plant species consumed by C. However, the actual callicenus of this diet are subject to debate, since various species of the Callicebus personatus group, especially C. Could these records again be evidence of the high adaptability of this species to secondary forest areas?
This feeding flexibility and consequent adaptability to variations in resource availability, in terms of component diversity and feeding behavior, could explain not only these regional differences in diet but also the apparent persistence callivebus in altered and fragmented forest areas. More specifically designed studies of diet aiming to solve these ecological questions for titis are of fundamental importance not only to the better understanding of this species, but also to its adequate management in protected areas.
The population size estimated for CSP by this study was approximately individuals Tab. If we choose to consider the average group size of 2. Even so, values somewhat higher than individuals are still smaller than the minimal viable population size of 7, individuals, as suggested by REED et al. Callicehus this standpoint, if we assume that the estimated value for the the viability of the northern-muriqui population, a larger body sized species than C.
This and other problems for the conservation not only of the titis, but of all other primate species that occur in the CSP are closely related to its proximity to the biggest nigrifrona center of Latin America. callicbeus
This study showed that the Callicebus nigrifrons population in CSP, a medium sized primate species with intermediate abundance in the primate community, is comparatively well established in this 7, ha forest reserve. They present nigirfrons no habitat limitation on occurrence, responding well to secondary forest, a predominant habitat in the CSP. Revista do Instituto Florestal 5 2: Habitat use by Chiropotes satanas utahicki and syntopic platyrrhines in eastern Amazonia. American Journal of Primatolology Estimating minimum area of suitable habitat and viable population size for the northern muriqui Brachyteles hypoxanthus.
Biodiversity and Conservation London, Chapman and Hall, p.
Primates of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Internacional Journal of Primatology 22 3: Neotropical Primates 6 1: Preliminary observations on habitat, support use and diet in two non-native primates in an urban Atlantic forest fragment: The capuchin ccallicebus Cebus sp. Urban Ecosystem 9 4: With broadax and firebrand: Berkeley, University of California Press, p. Interntional Journal of Primatology 18 4: The use of disturbed and undisturbed forest by masked titi monkeys Callicebus personatus melanochir is proportional to food availability.
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 16 2: Diet and feeding ecology of Masked Titis Callicebus personatusp. Adaptative radiations of Neotropical Primates.
Illinois, Plenum Press, p. Sakis, uakaris, and titi monkeys, p. New York, Oxford University Press, p. Neotropical Primates 11 2: Structural and spatial organization of an Amazoniam terra firme forest primate community. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9: Habitat, density and group size of primates in a Brazilian tropical forest. Neotropical Primates 12 1: Ranging behaviour and intraspecific relationships of masked titi monkeys Callicebus personatus personatus. American Journal of Primatology Population densities of primates in a Brazilian Atlantic forest.
Folia Primatologica 73 1: Estimates of minimum viable population sizes for vertebrates and factors influencing those estimates. Primates of the Atlantic forest: Densidade e tamanho populacional de primatas em um fragmento florestal no sudeste do Brasil.
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 21 4: Disturbance, forest heterogeneity and primate communities in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest Park, p. A Primatologia no Brasil.
File:Callicebus nigrifrons – Wikimedia Commons
Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology 14 1: Taxonomic review of the Titi monkeys, nigriffons Callicebus Thomas,with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashifrom Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotropical Primates 10 Suppl. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Habitat use To obtain a reliable statistical analysis, the frequency of each available habitat, as well as the titi’s sightings obtained on each nucleus were grouped and analyzed, statistically, in a global way.
Diet We observed the titis consume 15 species belonging to nine families. How to cite this article.